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Perso-Arabic and Roman, though relatively late entrants and are considered foreign not being related to the indigenous proto-system, gained currency and prestige because of patronage because of patronage from the ruling groups. The signs suggested for nasals may not be adequate when one analyses all the Indian languages. Roy2 is only a sample. Whether to write one symbol with diacritics for distinguishing two sounds, or to write two separate symbols, depends to a large extent on the phonemic structure of the language and the availability of notational symbol in the script concerned. These arguments, by inference, show that Nagari is cumbersome, uneconomical and is the vehicle for relatively unimportant languages. The major scripts with their recorded history of a thousand years usually become symbols of cultural unity of the groups employing them.
In view of this it is suggested that the non-literate languages be encouraged to adopt and adapt the script system of the neighbouring dominant language with which their immediate economic interest is tied up. There are basically two ways of writing stresses, linear and non-linear. Roy2 is only a sample. This has been a convenient tool in the hands of politicians, who in the name of separate identity, keep the people divided. Secondly, the main problem before the government and the language planner is the liquidation of illiteracy and the consequent rise in the political, technical and cultural standards of the country. The advantages and dis-advatages have to be carefully weighed in this regard.
Besides this, certain other important questions like the relationship between language and literacy, script and language learning, raised by this group need to be taken up for closer examination. The deficiency in the scheme, as it is, emerges form the fact that it does not provide for the two Marathi affricates, for the implosives of Sindhi, and for the Badaga voiced phonemes, which though otherwise identical, come in sets of three, differing in the presence of no, slight or strong retroflexion.
The Granthi knows how to read it.
The first eight are drawn from a common source, Brahmi. Parallel situations are presented where the same script is called Bengali script in Bengal, Assamese script in Assam; the Devanagari script ii called the Hindi script in the Hindi areas and the Marathi script in the Marathi areas. Aspects of Language, New York, To one unaware of the language specific value of letters this may be quite puzzling, but once familiar with the spelling conventions, the pattern in mlvie apparent madness becomes clear.
In abaswma community where the dominant language is written in its own script and English is considered the most important second language by both the majority and the minority speakers, writing the minority language in any one of the scripts may create its own problem.
The case of Konkani, Santhali and Bodo may be taken for case study in this connection. The Roman alphabets currently in use double the number of characters by having differing ‘ capitals ‘.
In India values of permanence are attached to the scripts and higher status is ascribed to those languages which have ancient and individual writing systems. But historically, the neglect of writing by linguists and their consideration of writing outside the main domain of linguitics BloomfieldHockettGleasonBolinger LangackerLyons 4, has led to the delayed recognition of writing as a valid area of sociolinguistic enquiry.
It is a fact that wide acceptance of the Latin alphabet has not resulted in any kind of unity anywhere in the world. If not properly understood and resolved this may create serious socio-political problems. This modified Roman would in no way be superior to Nagari where conjucts or combinations of graphemes are said to hinder learning.
The situation is bound to be confounding at the initial stages. A Grammar of each of these writing systems could however be written to point out their individuality and difference. In a state where there is a single dominant script, the problem is one of adopting the script to a non-literate language. In some ways this is related to the question of adoption of a uniform auxiliary script for the whole country.
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fhll With a spirit of give and take these problems can easily be solved. In all cases the protagonists of one script consider scripts as a passport to privilege.
I hope that this discussion will draw attention of scholars to the ” most abbasama shortcoming of traditional studies of writing in that they reveal very little about the social patterning of this activity or the contribution it makes to the maintenance of social system. In the popular mind writing is endowed with magical power.
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All the three are concerned with the emotional issue of maintenance of identity of the group. Parallel movue are presented where the same script in Karnataka. In almost all Indian languages punctuation in the modern sense is almost a 18thth century phenomenon. But in the new Sanskrit Dictionary published by the Deccan College, Poona, an abawama has been made parf mark the tonal contours and this has raised understandable controversy among the Sanskritists.
Adoption of the dominant script may also pose similar problems. A phonemic script may not always be an ideal solution. More often the demand to write Konkani and Santhali in one script is advanced with a view to strengthen the demand for a Konkani or a Santhal state. In societies, steeped in orthodoxy controlled by samans, witch doctors or such like, introduction of writing is resisted by the tribal leaders.
Parf explains creation of new script ful unwritten languages and reluctance of minority languages for sharing the script for unwritten languages and reluctance of minority languages. Example of one script used for writing many languages is furnished by Nagari, which is used for writing Hindi, Marathi and a host of minor languages.
There are basically two ways of writing stresses, linear and non-linear. India presents almost all the complexities that one meets on a tour of the ful. This is further linked up with the demand of the consolidation of Bodo speaking areas in Assam, West Bengal and Tripura and demand for a separate State.
So any effort at replacing them is bound to evoke serious opposition. Similarly a Tamilian may write ‘kanti’ but read it as ‘gandhi’. The post-Independence accent on nationality and the idea of unity in diversity is likely to aid the adoption of a familiar Indian script and create some resistance against Roman.
With the advent of Christian missionaries, the Roman script was favoured as the most fit vehicle for these languages. Roman cannot be adopted without making a complete break with the cultural past. The issue therefore is not whether one should not learn Roman or Nagari, but it is one of defining the domain of the use of the use of both the scripts.
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Whether to write one symbol with diacritics for distinguishing two ;art, or to write two separate symbols, depends to a large extent on the phonemic structure of the language and the availability of notational symbol in the script concerned. The same Nagari script used for writing Hindi and Marathi is called the Hindi script in the Hindi regions and Marathi script in the Marathi region.
From the practical point of view, none including the opponents of Nagari, has yet disputed the majority base of Nagari writing in India. In learning a language, emotional factors are overwhelmingly important.
If not fifty rupees fine”. Language, New York, The Problem and Planning of Scripts.
The scheme suggested by P. It is often contended that a speech form is not language unless it has a script. The attempt to create one universal language has resulted in the creation of several passigraphic systems like visible speech, analphabetic notations, I. For example, Bengali-Assamese-Manipuri is a single script system with Assamese having four letters distinctly different from Bengali.
Script is relatively a minor aspect of learning a language.